The smooth floor or wall tile is a porcelain stoneware ceramic with a brilliant, highly shiny surface with a mirror-like effect. Among the various types of smooth porcelain stoneware there are porcelain stoneware tiles with a polished marble or granite effect.
This type of treatment takes place through a mechanical process which is divided into four phases. calibration, leveling, smoothing and grinding.
Surface calibration is the phase in which slight irregularities and unevenness of the porcelain stoneware tiles are eliminated, normal consequences of the firing phase in the kiln. The process is carried out by passing the tile under a series of diamond rollers that abrade the surface.
Flattening is a process that is carried out with abrasive agents, often silicon is used, by means of rotating roller leveling pumpheads. After the roller pumphead has flattened the tile, the surface is perfectly flat, without irregularities and without scratches.
As regards the smoothing or polishing of the tiles, it is gradually made by reducing the surface roughness through a subsequent series of abrasive discs, with a gradually more minute grain.The use of even more minute grain abrasives proceeds step by step up to to have the complete polishing of the porcelain stoneware.
This last phase is necessary to obtain tiles having a very precise edge . In fact, it’s important that the joint is perfectly linear in a floor with glossy ceramics . For this reason, the edge of the tile must be ground after polishing it.